IJCAI _1983-VOLUME 1

Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence

IJCAI-83

VOLUME 1

CONTENTS

Automatic Programming

AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING 1: KEYNOTE ADDRESS

Automatic Programming Using Abstract Data Types  

Gerard Guiho....................................1

THEOREM PROVING/AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING

Theory of Linear Equations Applied to Program Transformation

Uday S. Reddy and Barat Jayaraman..............10

AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING 1

Symbolic Execution of the Gist Specification Language

Donald Cohen ..................................17

Manipulating Descriptions of Programs for Database Access

P. M. D. Gray and D. S. Moffat .....................21

Synthesizing Least Fixed Point Queries Into Non-Recursive Iterative Programs

Shamim A. Naqvi and Lawrence J. Henschen........25

AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING 2

Diagnostic Reasoning in Software Fault Localization

 Robert L. Sedlmeyer, William B. Thompson, and Paul E. Johnson........29

A Problem Reduction Approach to Program Synthesis

 Douglas R. Smith................................32

Automatic Programming From Data Types Decomposition Patterns

Christian Gresse................................37

EXPERT SYSTEMS/AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING/ KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION

Program Transformations for VLSI

Jack Mostow -NA..............40

Cognitive Modelling

PANEL

Under What Conditions Can a Machine Attribute Meanings to Symbols

Aaron Sloman, ,.................44

Under What Conditions Can a Machine Attribute Meanings to Symbols

Drew McDermott         45

Under What Conditions Can a Machine Attribute Meanings to Symbols

 W. A. Woods,

COGNITIVE MODELLING 2

How to Discover a Knowledge Representation for Causal Reasoning by Studying an Expert Physician

Benjamin Kuipers and Jerome P. Kassirer...........49

Learning to Program

John R. Anderson ...............................57

COGNITIVE MODELLING 1

Creating a Story-Telling Universe

Michael Lebowitz ...............................63

Shifting the Focus of Attention—The Way Agatha Christie Leads You On

Andras Markus .................................66

Dynamic World Simulation for Planning With Multiple Agents

Sharon Wood...................................69

Some Basic Mechanisms for Common Sense Reasoning About Stories Environments

Giovanni Adorni, Mauro DiManzo, and Fausto Giunchiglia.......72

Understanding Stories Through Morals and Remindings

Michael G. Dyer.................................75

Planning Perlocutionary Acts

  Gabriella Airenti, Bruno G. Bara, and Marco Colombetti.........78

COGNITIVE MODELLING 3

Logic Modelling of Cognitive Reasoning

Goran Hagert and Ake Hansson ...................81

Motives and Emotions in a General Learning System

J.G.Wallace...................................84

Artificial Intelligence in the Classroom

Wynne Bell.....................................87

Examples in Legal Reasoning: Legal Hypotheticals

Edwina L. Rissland.......................,......90

Modeling Cognitive Development on the Balance Scale Task

Stephanie Sage and Pat Langley...................94

Semi-Automated Analysis of Protocols From Novices and Experts Solving Physics Problems

L. Konst, B. J. Wielinga, J. J. Elshout, and W. N. H. Jansweijer...............97

Expert Systems

EXPERT SYSTEMS 3: KEYNOTE ADDRESS

Extracting Knowledge From Expert Systems 

John McDermott..............................100

PANEL

Industrial Strength Knowledge Bases: Issues and Experiences Knowledge Base Stability Memory: Uniform or Structured

Integrity Knowledge Acquisition and the User Interface Joint Knowledge Base Development Interfaces to Databases

Thomas P. Kehler, Peter Friedland, Harry Pople, Rene Reboh, and Steve Rosenberg................108

EXPERT SYSTEMS 1: COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

On the Requirements of Future Expert Systems

RonSauersand Rick Walsh......................110

ACE: An Expert System for Telephone Cable Maintenance

Gregg T. Vesonder, Salvatore J. Stolfo, John E. Zielinski, Frederick D. Miller, and David H. Copp.............116

The Dipmeter Advisor System—A Case Study in Commercial Expert System Development

Reid G. Smith and James D. Baker................122

EXPERT SYSTEMS 2: PLAUSIBLE INFERENCE

A Synthetic View of Approximate Reasoning Techniques

Henri Prade ...................................130

Consistency and Plausible Reasoning

J. R. Quinlan...................................137

Extracting Useful Advice From Conflicting Expertise

Rene Reboh...................................145

EXPERT SYSTEMS 4: APPLICATIONS

Procedural Expert Systems

Michael Georgeff and Umberto Bonollo............151

Techniques for Sensor-Based Diagnosis

Mark S. Fox, Simon Lowenfeld, and Pamela Kleinosky..........158

EXPERT SYSTEMS 3: GENERAL

A Comparative Study of PIP and INTERNIST

Howard B. Sherman

AI Research in China: A Review

Jiang Xinsong, Song Guoning, and Chen Yu ........164

Knoesphere: Building Expert Systems With Encyclopedic Knowledge

Douglas B. Lenat, Alan Borning, David McDonald, Craig Taylor, and Steven Weyer...................167

EXPERT SYSTEMS 5

Intelligent Assistants for Knowledge and Information Resources Management

Charles H. Kellogg .............................170

Expert System as an Intelligent Assistant for Computer Users

Riichiro Mizoguchi, Yukuo Isomoto, and Osamu Kakusho...............173

Providing Help and Advice in Task Oriented Systems

Timothy W. Finin...............................176

Diagnosis of Multiple Faults in a Nationwide Communications Network

Thomas L. Williams, Paul J. Orgren, and Carl L Smith ..................................179

Detecting Ambiguity: An Example in Knowledge Evaluation

D. W. Loveland and M. Valtorta...................182

Oil-Weil Data Interpretation Using Expert System and Pattern Recognition Technique

Alain Bonnet and Claude Dahan..................185

EXPERT SYSTEMS 6: PLAUSIBLE REASONING

A Computational Model for Causal and Diagnostic Reasoning in Inference Systems

Jin H. Kim and Judea Pearl.......................190

A Comparison of Uncertainty Calculi in an Expert System for Information Retrieval

Richard M. Tong, Daniel G. Shapiro, Jeffrey S. Dean, and Brian P. McCune............................194

A Method of Computing Generalized Bayesian Probability Values for Expert Systems

Peter Cheeseman..............................198

Reasoning About Control: The Investigation of an Evidential Approach

Leonard P. Wesley..............................203

Model-Based Probabilistic Reasoning for Electronics Troubleshooting

Richard R. Cantone, Frank J. Pipitone, W. Brent Lander, and Michael P. Marrone.............207

A Report on FOLIO: An Expert Assistant for Portfolio Managers

Paul R. Cohen and Mark D. Lieberman.............212

EXPERT SYSTEMS 7: LANGUAGES AND STRUCTURES, ESPECIALLY FOR TIME DEPENDENT REASONING

HPRL: A Language for Building Expert Systems

 Steven Rosenberg..............................215

CSRL: A Language for Expert Systems for Diagnosis

Tom Bylander, Sanjay Mittal, and B. Chandrasekaran.............................218

Structure Based Control Strategy

C. M. Lou and J. Wang...........................222

A Diagnosis Method of Dynamic System Using the Knowledge on System Description

Naoyuki Yamada and Hiroshi Motoda .............225

A Control Structure for Time Dependent Reasoning

William J. Long and Thomas A. Russ..............230

Decision-Making in Time-Critical Situations

Shoichi Masui, John McDermott, and Alan Sobel . . . .233

EXPERT SYSTEMS 8: APPLICATIONS

Recognition-Based Diagnostic Reasoning

William B. Thompson, Paul E. Johnson, and James B. Moen................236

Medical Plan-Analysis: The Attending System

Perry L Miller..................................239

CAA: A Knowledge Based System Using Causal Knowledge to Diagnose Cardiac Rhythm Disorders

Tetsutaro Shibahara, John K. Tsotsos, John Mylopoulos, and H. Dominic Covvey...........242

The Use of Simulation Models and Human Advice to Build an Expert System for the Defense and Control of River Floods

J. Cuena......................................246

Artificial Intelligence and Macro-Economy, An Application

Jean-Luis Roos................................250

Representation of Experts' Knowledge in a Subdomain of Chess Intelligence

H. J. van den Herik..............................252

EXPERT SYSTEMS/AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING/ KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION

Integrating Multiple Knowledge Representations and Learning Capabilities in an Expert System: The ADVISE System

R. S. Michalski and A. B. Baskin ..................256

An Expert System for Indications and Warning Analysis

Douglas B. Lenat, Albert Clarkson, and Garo Kiremidjian...............259

Representation and Analysis of Electrical Circuits in a Deductive System

Takushi Tanaka................................263

Representation of Empirically Derived Causal Relationships

Robert L. Blum.................................268

Knowledge Representation

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION 4: EXOTIC LOGICS

Semantical Considerations on Nonmonotonic Logic

Robert C. Moore................................272

Intensions as Such: An Outline

John A. Barnden ...............................280

Permissions and Obligations

L Thorne McCarty..............................287

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION 5: TIME AND SPACE

The Mercator Representation of Spatial Knowledge

Ernest Davis...................................295

Generalizing Problem Reduction: A Logical Analysis

Drew McDermott...............................302

A Society of MindMultiple Perspectives, Reasoned Assumptions, and Virtual Copies

Jon Doyle.....................................309

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION/LOGIC PROGRAMMING/LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

Measurement Interpretation in Qualitative Process Theory

Ken Forbus....................................315

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION 1: FRAMES AND SEMANTIC NETWORKS

Semantic Networks as Abstract Data Types

Werner Dilger and Wolfgang Womann.............321

Modelling and Manipulating Production Data Bases in Terms of Semantic Nets

R. Meersman and F. VanAssche..................325

Classification in the KL-ONE Knowledge Representation System

James G. Schmolze and Thomas A. Lipkis..........330

KL-Conc: A Language for Interacting With Si-Nets

Amedeo Cappelli, Lorenzo Moretti, and Carlo Vinchesi..........333

A Formal Approach to the Semantics of a Frame Data Model

Ulrich Reimer and Udo Hahn.....................337

Integrating Logic Programs and Schemata

Bradley P. Allen and J. M. Wright..................340

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION 2: UNCERTAINTY, NONMONOTONIC LOGIC AND TIMESPACE

Reasoning in Time and Space

Jitendra Malik and Thomas 0. Binford............343

Representation of Temporal Knowledge

E. Yu Kandrashina..............................346

The Ins and Outs of Reason Maintenance

Jon Doyle.....................................349

General Approach to Nonmonotonic Logics

Witold Lukaszewicz ............................352

A Framework for Heuristic Reasoning About Uncertainty

Paul R. Cohen and Milton R. Grinberg..............355

How to Represent Evidence—Aspects of Uncertain Reasoning

Claus-Rainer Rollinger..........................358

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION 3: KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF

Simulating Non-Deductive Reasoning

James W. Hearne ..............................362

Meta-Knowledge and Meta-Reasoning

Robert E. Filman, John Lamping, and Fanya S. Montalvo...........365

Reasoning in Multiple Belief Spaces

Joao P. Martins and Stuart C. Shapiro .............370

A Logical Model of Knowledge

Martin Nilsson.................................374

A Deductive Model of Belief

Kurt Konolige..................................377

Knowing Intensional Individuals, and Reasoning About Knowing Intensional Individuals

Anthony S. Maida ..............................382

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION 6

An Experiment in Representing the Knowledge Involved in the Specification and Design of Switching Systems

Jean-Francois Cloarec and Jean-Francois Cudelou........385

A Case Study of Knowledge Representation in UC

David N. Chin..................................388

Predicate Logic Involving Data Structure as a Knowledge Representation Language

Setsuo Ohsuga ................................391

Descriptions as Constraints in Object-Oriented Representation

Luc Steels ....................................395

W-JS: A Modal Logic of Knowledge

Ma Xiwen and Guo Weide........................398

Memory and Inference

Robert Wilensky ...............................402

EXPERT SYSTEMS/AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING/ KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION

A Description and Reasoning of Plant Controllers in Temporal Logic

Akira Fusaoka, Hirohisa Seki, and Kazuko Takahashi.....................................405

Learning and Knowledge Acquisition-NA

LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION 3: KEYNOTE ADDRESS

Address by Doug Lenat....................Unpublished

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION/LOGIC PROGRAMMING/LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

Representation and Induction of Infinite Concepts and Recursive Action Sequences

Fritz Wysotzki .................................409

LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION 1

Perturbation: A Means for Guiding Generalization

Dennis Kibler and Bruce Porter...................415

Learning Effective Search Heuristics

Pat Langley ...................................419

Flexible Learning of Problem Solving Heuristics Through Adaptive Search

Stephen F. Smith...............................422

A Constrained Mechanism for Procedural Learning

Stellan Ohlsson................................426

Learning Equation Solving Methods From Examples

Bernard Silver .................................429

Knowledge Oriented Learning

Paul D. Scott and Robert C. Vogt..................432

LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION 2

A Pragmatic Knowledge Acquisition Methodology

Mark D. Grover.................................436

Learning by Controlled Transference of Knowledge Between Domains

Agustin A. Araya...............................439

Admissible Hypotheses and Enhanced Learning

G. M.K.Hunt ..................................444

Adjusting Bias in Concept Learning

PaulE. Utgoff..................................447

What's New? A Semantic Definition of Novelty

Russell Greiner and Michael R. Genesereth.........450

The Discovery of the Equator or Concept Driven Learning

Werner Emde, Christopher U. Habel, and Claus-Rainer Rollinger.............455

LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION 3

Learning Word Meanings From Examples

Robert C. Berwick..............................459

Acquiring Schemata Through Understanding and Generalizing Plans

Gerald DeJong.................................462

Three Facets of Scientific Discovery

Pat Langley, Jan M. Zytkow, Gary L. Bradshaw, and Herbert A. Simon...........465

LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION 4

A Learning System Which Accommodates Feature Interactions

Larry A. Rendell................................469

An Appraisal of a Decision Tree Approach to Image Classification

B. A. Shepherd.................................473

Algorithms for Learning Logical Formulas

Joel Quinqueton and Jean Sallantin...............476

concept Formation From Very Large Training Sets

Richard A. O'Keefe.............................479

Towards Knowledge Acquisition From Natural Language

Documents—Automatic Model Construction From Hardware Manual

Toyo-aki Nishida, Akira Kosaka, and Shuji Doshita. . . 482

Logic Programming

LOGIC PROGRAMMING 3: KEYNOTE ADDRESS

Prolog in Ten Figures

 Alain Colmerauer ..............................487

LOGIC PROGRAMMING 2: THEORETICAL

Completeness of the Negation as Failure Rule

Joxan Jaffar, Jean-Louis Lassez, and John Lloyd . . . .500

Qute: A Prolog/Lisp Type Language for Logic Programming

Masahiko Sato and Takafumi Sakurai .............507

Equality for Prolog

William A. Kornfeld.............................514

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION/LOGIC PROGRAMMING/LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

Semantic Code Analysis

Walter G. Wilson and Chester C. John -NA.........520

LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1

Prolog/Ex1, An Inference Engine Which Explains Both Yes and No Answers

Adrian Walker .................................526

Logic Programs With Uncertainties: A Tool for Implementing Rule-Based Systems

Ehud Y. Shapiro................................529

Integrating Prolog Into the Poplog Environment

Chris Mellish and Steve Hardy...................533

"Logal": Algorithmic Control Structures for Prolog

D. C. Dodson and A. L. Rector ....................536

AND Parallelism in Logic Programs

John S. Conery and Dennis F. Kibler...............539

PRISM: A Parallel Inference System for Problem Solving

Simon Kasif, Madhur Kohli, and Jack Minker........544

LOGIC PROGRAMMING 3

A Unification Algorithm for Infinite Trees

Kuniaki Mukai .................................547

Building Libraries in Prolog

Alan Feuer....................................550

Mechanization of an Oracle in a Debugging System

Anneli Edman and Sten-Ake Tarnlund..............553

Natural Language

NATURAL LANGUAGE 1: KEYNOTE ADDRESSES

Phrase Structure Grammars and Natural Languages

 Gerald Gazdar.................................556

Formal Theories of Language Acquisition: Practical and Theoretical Perspectives

Daniel N. Osherson, Michael Stob, and Scott Weinstein................................566

NATURAL LANGUAGE 8

Transportability and Generality in a Natural-Language Interface System

Paul Martin, Douglas Appelt, and Fernando Pereira ...........573

Focus Constraints on Language Generation

Kathleen R. McKeown...........................582

Beyond Domain-Independence: Experience With the Development of a German Language Access System to

Highly Diverse Background Systems

Wolfgang Hoeppner, Thomas Christaller, Heinz Marburger, Katharina Morik, Bernhard Nebel, Mike O'Leary, and Wolfgang Wahlster..................588

NATURAL LANGUAGE 2: GENERATION-THEORETICAL, INCLUDING SEMANTICS

TELEGRAM:

A Grammar Formalism for Language Planning

Douglas E. Appelt..............................595

An Indirect Approach to Types of Speech Acts

Jeremy Ellman.................................600

Mutual Beliefs in Conversational Systems: Their Role in Referring Expressions

Gopalan Nadathur and Aravind K. Joshi............603

Some Issues in Generation From a Semantic Representation

Laurence Danlos...............................606

Generation in a Natural Language Interface

Paul S. Jacobs.................................610

Generation of Japanese Sentences From Conceptual Representation

Shun Ishizaki..................................613