IJCAI 77 VOL 1

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, USA

AUGUST 22 - 25 , 1977

NATURAL LANGUAGE -1 (M,C)

Ms. Maloprop, A Language Comprehension Program

E. Charniak            1

How to Learn/What to Learn           

R. C. Schank & M.Selfridge             8

PAM A Program That Infers Intentions           

R. Wilensky                15

Skimming Newspaper Stories by Computer                

Gerald DeJong                16

Controlling Inference in Story Understanding

R. E. Cullingford             17

NATURAL LANGUAGE - 2 (M,D)

Shortfall and Density Scoring Strategies for Speech Understanding Control       

W. A. woods                     18               

W. A. Woods Focus of Attention in the Hearsay-II Speech Understanding System

F. Hayes-Roth & V. R. Lesser          27

Procedures for Integrating Knowledge in a Speech Understanding System 

D. E. Walker, W. H. Paxton, B. J. Grosz,   G. G. Hendrix, A. E. Robinson, J. J. Robinson & J. Slocum        36

NATURAL LANGUAGE - 3 (T,A)

Levels of Complexity in Discourse for Anaphora Disambiguation and Speech Act Interpretation        

C. Bullwinkle                         43

The Use of a Semantic Network in a Deductive Question-Answering System

J. R. McSkimin & J. Minker           50

A Deductive Question Answering System on Relational Data Bases

K. Furukawa                     59

NATURAL LANGUAGE - 4 (T,C)

The Representation and Use of Focus in a System for Understanding Dialogs

 B. J. Grosz                               67

A Comprehension Model for Human Dialogue        

W. C. Mann, J. A. Moore & J. A.                77

Modelling Simple Dialogs         

Mary Katherine Horrigan                   88

Making Inferences in Natural Language Dialogs

Charles L Hedrick                          89

Using Process Knowledge in Understanding Task-Oriented Dialogs

 B. J. Grosz, G. G. Hendrix & A. E. Robinson                 90

NATURAL LANGUAGE - 5 (LP)

TALE-SPIN, An Interactive Program that Writes Storie6 

J. R. Meehan                          91

On Semantic Nets, Frames and Associations

Phillip J. Hayes                            99

Frames-based Text Processing

S. Rosenberg COMEX:                      108 

A Commodities Support System

J. Stansfield                     109

NATURAL LANGUAGE - 6 (W,A)

Coherence and Interpretation in English Texts 

J. R. Hobbs                        110

Automatic Abstracting of Textual Material

S. L Taylor, G. K. Krulee & L T. Henschen                    117

Overview of 'Planning Speech Acts'

C. R. Perrault & P. R. Kohen                      119

The Generation of Continuous Semantic Constraints from Semantic Propositions

G. C. Oden                         120

NATURAL LANGUAGE - 7 (w,C)

Anaphora and Logical Form: On Formal Meaning Representations for Natural Language

B. Nash-Webber & R. Reiter Conceptual                    121

Analysis of Noun Groups in English

A. V. Gershman                         132

A Note on Representing Adjectives and Adverbs

Nike Cercone                   139

From Conversations to Stories: An Analysis of Differences Between Oral and Written Language Comprehension            

A. D. Rubin & B.                       141

BruceLanguage Generation: The Linguistics Component

D. D. McDonald                       142

Generating Noun Phrases to Identify Nodes in a Semantic Network

G. E. Heidorn                              143

NATURAL LANGUAGE -1 (W,D)

Writing a Natural Language Data Base System

D. L. Waltz & B. A. Goodman                      144

Knowledge Structures and Language Boundaries

Y. Wilks                           151

A Conceptual Theory of Question Answering

W. G. Lehnert                           158

NATURAL LANGUAGE - 9 (H,A)

Maximal Consistent Interpretations of Errorful Data in Hierarchically Modeled Domains

M. S. Fox & D. J. Mostow FOUL-UP:                   165

A Program that Figures Out Meanings of Words from Context

R. H. GrangerQ                     172

A Simplified Heuristic Version of Raviv's Algorithm for Using Context in Text Recognition

R. Schinghal, D. Rosenberg & G. T. Toussaint                    179

Two Semantic Worlds: A Data Base System with Provision for Natural Language Input

P. DelPOrco, M. King & V. N. Spadavecchia                    181

NATURAL LANPUAPE-IP (H,C)

Human Engineering for Applied Natural Language Processing

G. G. Hendrix                        183

Advantages of a Transformational Grammar for Question Answering

F. J. Damerau                        192

Augmenting ATNST

Finin & G. Hadden                  193

The Use of Dynamically Extracted Context for Anaphoric Reference Resolution

D. Klappholz & A. Lockman                 194

Presupposition-Based AI Natural Language System

V. Raskin                     195

REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE - 1 (M,D)

Language Access to Distributed Data with Error Recovery              

E. D. Sacerdoti                     196

Deductive Methods for Large Data Bases                                 

C. Kellogg, P. Klahr & L. Travis                  203

SPARK: A System for Parallel Representation of Knowledge

G. A. Wilson                  210

Approximate Responses from a Data Base Query System: An Application of Inferencing in Natural Language

A. K. Joshi, S. J. Kaplan & R. M. Lee           211

REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE - 2 (T,A)

Experience with KRL-0: One Cycle of a Knowledge Representation Language

D. G. Bobrow, T. Winograd & KRL research group                 213

Reasoning About Knowledge and Action                            

R. C. Moore                   223

A State Logic for the Representation of Natural Language Based Intelligent Systems

C. B. Schwind                   228

On the Model Theory of Knowledge

J. McCarthy, M. Sato, T. Hayashi & S. Igarashi--NA

REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE - 3 (T,D)

Vocabularies for Problem Solver State Descriptions

D. McDermott               229

A Network-Based Knowledge Representation and Its Natural Deduction System

R. Fikes & G. G. Hendrix        235

Truth Maintenance Systems for Problem Solving         

J. Doyle               247

 A Structure for the Representation of Knowledge: A Proposal for a Micro-Actor             

H. Ogawa & K. Tanaka          248

REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE - 4 (W,A)

The Declarative Representation and Procedural Simulation of Causality in Physical Mechanisms

C. Rieger & M. Grinberg            250

NUDGE: A Knowledge-Based Scheduling Program

I. P. Goldstein & R. B. Roberts              257

A Procedural Model of Recognition                                          

W. S. Havens                   264

Representation of Actions That Have Side-Effects                               

N. S. Sridharan & F. Hawrusik                  265

REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE - 5 (W,C)

Inferences in Quantified Semantic Networks                                        

R. F. Simmons & D. Chester                267

IRIS: A System for the Propogation of Inferences in a Semantic Net

M. Trigoboff & C. A. Kulikowski-NA          274

Towards a Combined Representation for Spacial and Temporal Reference

N. K. Sondheimer   

An Overview of a Procedural Approach to Semantic Networks                        

H. J. Levesque & J. Mylopoulos          283

Representing Numbers in Semantic Networks: Prolegomena                                 

S. C. Shapiro           284

Specification Overlays: An Application of Partitioned Semantic Networks           

R. L. Young                285

REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE - 6 (W,D)

Representations of Knowledge in a Program for Solving Physics Problems               

G. 5. Novak             286

Modelling Spatial Knowledge                                              

B. Kuipers                 292

Multiple Representations of Knowledge in a Mechanics Problem-Solver                           

J. de Kleer                 299

KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION - | (T,A)

Version Spaces: A Candidate Elimination Approach to Rule Learning                           

T. M. Mitchell                 305

Annotated Production Systems: A Model for Skill Acquisition

I. P. Goldstein & E. Grimson             311

Knowledge Guided Learning of Structural Descriptions                  

M. S. Fox & R. Reddy            318

A System of Programs for Computer-Aided Induction: A Summary                 

R. S. Michalski                319

KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION - 2 (W,A)

Interactive Transfer of Expertise: Acquisition of New Inference Rules 

R. Davis               321

The Reformulation Approach to Building Expert Systems            

W. S. Mark           329

An Interactive Program for Conversational Elecitation of Decision Structures                                 

A. Leal & J. Pearl           336

Problems in Building an Instructable Production System

M. Rychener, C. Forgy, P. W. Langley, J. McDermott, A. Newell & K. Ramakrishna        337

KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION - 3 (W,C)

A Model for learning Systems                       

Raid G.Smith  Tom M Mitchel                337   

BACON: A Production System That Discovers Empirical Laws                 

P. W. Langley              344

Analogical Reasoning in Problem Solving                                               

D. T. Chen & N. V. Findler       345

Learning Simple Arithmetic                                    

P. Brazdil      346

Concept Decomposition as a Method of Concept Formation

E. Towster   347

Analysis of an Extended Concept-Learning Task             

R. M. Young, G. D. Plotkin & R. F. Linz         348

KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION : 4 (W,D)

Induction of Relational Productions in the Presence of Background Information                    

S. A. Vere          349

Knowledge Acquisition from Structural Descriptions                                           

F. Hayes-Roth & J. McDermott       356

Strategies for Mechanizing Structural Induction                                               

R. Aubin    363

AIDS TO PROGRAMMING - 1 (T,A)

Modelling Distributed Systems                                                             

A. Yonezawa & C. Hewitt      370

Understanding and Improving LISP Programs               

H. Wertz            377

Automatic Program Annotation                                                      

N. Dershowitz                 378

Toward Automatic Debugging of Compilers                                        

H. Samet            379

AIDS TO PROGRAMMING - 2 (T,C)

A Summary of the PSI Program Synthesis System                      

C. Green           380

A Knowledge-Based System for Automatic Program Construction              

D. Barstow               382

Informality in Program Specifications                                                

R. Balzer, N. Goldman & D. Wile            389

Meta-Evaluation as a Tool for Program Understanding                           

R. Balzer, N. Goldman & D. Wile            398

The Use of a Domain Model in Understanding Informal Process Descriptions            

N. Goldman, R. Balzer & D. Wile     404

AIDS TO PROGRAMMING - 3 (H,D)

The Automatic Synthesis of Systems of Recursive Programs

Z. Manna & R. Waldinger            405

SISP/1: An Interactive System Able to Synthesize Functions from Examples

J.-P. Jouannaud, G. Guiho & J.-P. Treuil           412

Predicate Logic: A Calculus for the Formal Derivation of Programs

K. Clark & S. Sickel                419

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND SEARCH - 1 (M,D)

EG -- A Case Study in Problem Solving with King and Pawn Endings 

C. Perdue & H. J. Berliner            421

Experiences in Evaluation with BKG - A Program that Plays Backgammon 

H. J. Berliner           428

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND SEARCH - 2 (W,C)

Exactly How Good Are Heuristics?: Toward a Realistic Predictive Theory of Best-First Search                 

J. Gaschnig           434

A Comparsion of Three Problem-Solving Methods              

R. B. Banerji & G. W. Ernst           442

A Theory for the Complete Mechanization of a GPS-Type Problem Solver                

R. B. Banerji & G. W. Ernst           450

A General Backtrack Algorithm That Eliminates Most Redundant Tests

J. Gaschnig                     457

Generality and Computational Cost                           

A. Rosenfeld                  458

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND SEARCH - 3 (W,D)

WHISPER: A Problem-Solving System Utilizing Diagrams and a Parallel Processing Retina

B. V. Funt             459

The Role of Preprocessing in Problem Solving Systems                  

C. Dawson & L. Siklossy             465

The Contract Net: A Formalism for the Control of Distributed Problem Solving                   

R. G. Smith                472

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND SEARCH - 4 (H,C)

Planning in the World of the Air Traffic Controller                 

R. B. Wesson                 473

Plan Recognition Using A Hypothesize and Revise Paradigm                       

C. F. Schmidt & N. S- Sridharan                 480

Subgoal Protection and Unravelling During Plan Synthesis 

C. Rieger & P. London                487

Using and Re-Using Partial Plans          

P. R. Davis & R. T. Chien                              494

The Coordination of Multiple Goal Satisfaction       

A. M. Farley                             495

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND SEARCH - 5 (H,D)

Can Domain Specific Knowledge Be Generalized?    

A. Bundy                                 496

ThingLab -- An Object-Oriented System for Building Simulations Using Constraints

A. Borning                              497

Failure Handling in a Dialogue System  

G. P. Brown  TROPIC:                  499

A General-Purpose Design Problem Solver Applying Domain-Specific Heuristics

J. Latombe--NA

Representing Semantic Information In Pulley Problems

G. F. Luger Si A. Bundy                 500

THEOREM PROVING - I (M,C)

Set Variables

W. W. Bledsoe      501

A Lemma Driven Automatic Theorem Prover for Recursive Function Theory  

R. S. Boyer & J. S. Moore              511

Improving the Efficiency of Higher Order Unification      

J. L. Darlington          520

An Algorithm for Reasoning About Equality   

R. E. Shostak           526

Unification of ldempotent Functions

S. Kuhner, C. Mathis, P. Raulefs & J. Siekmann         528

THEOREM PROVING - 2 (M,D)

A Hierarchical Approach to Theorem-Proving             

M. C. Harrison        529

A Theorem Prover for Elementary Set Theory    

F. M. Brown          534

Theorem Proving by Covering Expressions

L. J. Henschen Si W. M. Evangelist   541

Theorem Proving with Structure Sharing and Efficient Unification 

A. Martelli & U. Montanari     543

THEOREM PROVING- 3 (T,C)

Formal Grammars as Models of Logic Derivations   

S. Sickel           544

A Proof-Checker for Dynamic Logic    

S. D. Litvintchouk & V. R. Pratt      552

In Defense of Logic      

Pat J. Hayes       559

Theorem Proving in Type Theory   

P. B. Andrews & E. L Cohen           566

A Mechanized Proof Procedure for Free Intensional Logics

R. D. Gumb                567