Proving the Incompatibility of Efficiency and Strategyproofness via SMT Solving / 116
Florian Brandl, Felix Brandt, Christian Geist
Two important requirements when aggregating the preferences of multiple agents are that the outcome should be economically efficient and the aggregation mechanism should not be manipulable. In this paper, we provide a computer-aided proof of a sweeping impossibility using these two conditions for randomized aggregation mechanisms. More precisely, we show that every efficient aggregation mechanism can be manipulated for all expected utility representations of the agents' preferences. This settles a conjecture by Aziz et al. [2013b] and strengthens a number of existing theorems, including statements that were shown within the special domain of assignment. Our proof is obtained by formulating the claim as a satisfiability problem over predicates from real-valued arithmetic, which is then checked using an SMT (satisfiability modulo theories) solver. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of SMT solvers in computational social choice.